Kinetic studies conducted under both catalytic and stoichiometric conditions were employed to investigate the reductive elimination of RuPhos (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-diisopropoxybiphenyl) based palladium amido complexes. These complexes were found to be the resting state in Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of a range of aryl halides and diarylamines. Hammett plots demonstrated that Pd(II) amido complexes derived from electron-deficient aryl halides or electron-rich diarylamines undergo faster rates of reductive elimination. A Hammett study employing SPhos (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl) and analogues of SPhos demonstrated that electron donation of the “lower” aryl group is key to the stability of the amido complex with respect to reductive elimination. The rate of reductive elimination of an amido complex based on a BrettPhos-RuPhos hybrid ligand (2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)-3,6-dimethoxy-2',6'-diisopropoxybiphenyl) demonstrated that the presence of the 3-methoxy substituent on the “upper” ring of the ligand slows the rate of reductive elimination. These studies indicate that reductive elimination occurs readily for more nucleophilic amines such as N-alkyl anilines, N,N-dialkyl amines, and primary aliphatic amines using this class of ligands.
“Biaryl Phosphine Based Pd(II) Amido Complexes: The Effect of Ligand Structure on Reductive Elimination”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138(38), 12486-12493.