A general, functional-group-tolerant, mild system for the Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl chlorides to the corresponding amides has been developed. The catalyst operates at 1 atm CO using an inexpensive, air-stable, and commercially available ligand. Sodium phenoxide is a critical additive in this transformation; its role has been studied using in situ IR spectroscopy.
“Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Aryl Chlorides at Atmospheric Pressure: The Dual Role of Sodium Phenoxide”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2007, 46(44), 8460-8463.