We report a versatile and functional-group-tolerant method for the Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling of five-membered heteroaryl halides with primary and secondary amines, an important but underexplored transformation. Coupling reactions of challenging, pharmaceutically relevant heteroarenes, such as 2-H-1,3-azoles, are reported in good-to-excellent yields. High-yielding coupling reactions of a wide set of five-membered heteroaryl halides with sterically demanding α-branched cyclic amines and acyclic secondary amines are reported for the first time. The key to the broad applicability of this method is the synergistic combination of (1) the moderate-strength base NaOTMS, which limits base-mediated decomposition of sensitive five-membered heteroarenes that ultimately leads to catalyst deactivation, and (2) the use of a GPhos-supported Pd catalyst, which effectively resists heteroarene-induced catalyst deactivation while promoting efficient coupling, even for challenging and sterically demanding amines. Cross-coupling reactions between a wide variety of five-membered heteroaryl halides and amines are demonstrated, including eight examples involving densely functionalized medicinal chemistry building blocks.
“Pd-Catalyzed Amination of Base-Sensitive Five-Membered Heteroaryl Halides with Aliphatic Amines”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2023, 145, 3323-3329.