Amphiphilic phosphine ligands were prepared and utilized in palladium-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions in water or water/organic biphasic solvents, providing excellent yields of functionalized biaryls and aryl alkynes, respectively.
“General Catalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira Coupling Reactions of Aryl Chlorides and for the Coupling of Challenging Substrate Combinations in Water”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2005, 44(38), 6173-6177.