The Pd-catalyzed condensation of 2-bromostyrene and 2-chloroaniline derivatives yields stable diphenylamine intermediates, which are selectively converted to five-, six-, or seven-membered heteroaromatics (indoles, carbazoles, acridines, and dibenzazepines). The selectivity of these intramolecular transformations is uniquely ligand-controlled and offers efficient routes to four important classes of heterocycles from a common precursor.
“Synthesis of Heterocycles via Pd-Ligand Controlled Cyclization of 2-Chloro-N-(2-vinyl)aniline: Preparation of Carbazoles, Indoles, Dibenzazepines and Acridines”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132(40), 14048-14051.